Vitamins and Minerals
The following information is based on the Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand Including Recommended Dietary Intakes. Specific advice for individual needs should be sought from a qualified dietitian.
The term nutrient identifies those substances in food that provide essential nourishment to maintain life.
||Milk, cheese, eggs, fatty fish, yellow-orange vegetables and fruits such as carrots, pumpkin, mango, apricots, and other vegetables such as spinach, broccoli.|
|Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)||
||Fortified breakfast cereals, baking flour, wholegrains, wheatgerm, yeast, legumes, nuts, pork.|
|Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)||
||Milk, cheese, yoghurt, fortified breads and breakfast cereals.|
|Vitamin B3 (Niacin)||
||Beef, pork, liver, beans, wholegrain cereals, eggs, cow’s milk.|
||Chicken, beef, potatoes, oat-based cereals, tomatoes, egg yolks, whole grains.|
|Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)||
||Muscle and organ meats, fortified breakfast cereals, brussel sprouts, green peas, beans, split peas, and fruit.|
|Vitamin B12 (Cyano-cobalamin)||
||Beef, lamb, fish, veal, chicken, eggs, milk and other dairy products.|
||Cereals, cereal products, vegetables eg broccoli, legumes and fruit eg oranges.|
||Meats and cereals.|
Note: eating raw egg whites prevents absorption of biotin.
||Milk, eggs, peanuts, wheat germ, dried soybeans.|
|Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)||
||Blackcurrants, orange, grapefruit, guava, kiwi fruit, raspberries, sweet peppers (Capsicum), broccoli, sprouts.|
||Sunlight on skin allows the body to produce Vitamin D. Few foods contain significant amounts however main dietary sources are fortified margarine, salmon, herring, mackerel, and eggs.|
|Vitamin E (Tocopherol)||
||Oils and margarines, fats of meats, chicken, fish, wheat germ, , spinach, cashews, peanuts, almonds, sunflower seeds.|
|Vitamin K (phylloquinone)||
||Spinach, salad greens, cabbage, broccoli, brussel sprouts, soybean oil, canola oil, margarines|
||Milk, cheese, yoghurt, bony fish, legumes, fortified soy beverages and fortified breakfast cereals.|
Note: the body excretes calcium with salt in urine, so eat less salt to retain your calcium.
||Widely found in foods such as yeast, eggs, meat, whole grains, cheese.|
||Organ meats, seafood, nuts, seeds, wheat bran cereals, whole grains.|
||Fluoridated water, fish, tea.|
||Salt water fish, shellfish, seaweed, iodised salt, vegetables (if there is iodine in the soil where they are grown).|
Note: Severe deficiencies can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, infant mortality, congenital abnormalities etc.
||Red meats – beef, lamb, veal, pork, fish, chicken and wholegrain cereals. |
Note: Iron absorption from plant sources eg cereals or green leafy vegetables is much lower than from animal sources so 80% more is required in the food to get the same amount absorbed. Vitamin C helps with absorption.
||Green vegetables, legumes, peas, beans, lentils, nuts, wholegrains and cereals|
||Cereal products, tea, vegetables.|
||Legumes, wholegrain products, nuts.|
||Widely distributed in natural foods eg dairy, meat, dried fruit, eggs, cereals.|
||Leafy green vegetables, tomatoes, cucumbers, zucchini, eggplant, pumpkin, root vegetables. Also moderately abundant in beans, peas, bananas, avocados, milk, yoghurt |
Note: Potassium has a beneficial effect in offsetting the effects of sodium (salt) on blood pressure.
||Seafood, poultry, eggs and to a lesser extent other muscle meats and cereal foods (content varies widely with soil condition).|
||Found in most take-away and processed foods eg bread, butter, margarine, deli meats, cheese, cereals. |
It is also a major component of table salt and baking soda
Note: It is important to use only moderate amounts of salt as recommended in the Dietary Guidelines.
||Meats, fish, poultry, cereals, dairy foods.|
Note: availability from animal sources is greater than that from plant sources so vegetarians need 50% higher intakes.